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Below is a list of commonly asked question regarding Hepatitis C: Updated 2019

1. What is hepatitis C?

Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is found in the blood of persons who have this disease. HCV is spread by contact with the blood of an infected person. Once exposed, 85% of these individuals become chronically infected, with a 15% chance of developing cirrhosis, which is scarring of the liver, over a 25 year time frame.

2. What blood tests are available to check for hepatitis C?

There are several blood tests that can be done to determine if you have been infected with HCV. You may need to be tested with one or two of the tests listed below to confirm the diagnosis:

a) Anti-HCV (antibody to HCV)

  • EIA (enzyme immunoassay) This test is usually done first. If positive, it should be confirmed

  • RIBA (recombinant immunoblot assay) A supplemental test used to confirm a positive EIA test Anti-HCV does not tell whether the infection is new (acute), chronic (long-term) or is no longer present. In most cases, this test is no longer used.

b) Qualitative tests to detect presence or absence of virus (HCV RNA)
This test will be reported as either positive (virus present) or negative (no virus present)   

c) Quantitative tests to detect amount (titer) of virus (HCV RNA)
A single positive PCR test indicates infection with HCV. A single negative test does not prove that a person is not infected. Virus may be present in the blood and just not found by PCR. Also, a person infected in the past who has recovered may have a negative test.

When hepatitis C is suspected and PCR is negative, PCR should be repeated. This test will be reported as a “viral load”, determining the amount of virus present. This viral load becomes most important during treatment to determine if the is a response to therapy.

3. Can you have a "false positive" anti-HCV test result?

Yes. A false positive test means the test looks as if it is positive, but it is really negative. This happens more often in persons who have a low risk for the disease for which they are being tested. For example, false positive anti-HCV tests happen more often in persons such as blood donors who are at low risk for hepatitis C. Therefore, it is important to confirm a positive anti-HCV test with a supplemental test as most false positive anti- HCV tests are reported as negative on supplemental testing. There are certain situations where individuals with autoimmune disorders, such as Lupus, may have a false positive HCV antibody test. Confirming this with a HCV-RNA will usually be negative-indicating no active hepatitis C.

4. Can you have a "false negative" anti-HCV test result?

Yes. Persons with early infection may not as yet have developed antibody levels high enough that the test can measure. In addition, some persons may lack the (immune) response necessary for the test to work well.

5. How long after exposure to HCV does it take to test positive for anti-HCV?

Anti-HCV can be found in 7 out of 10 persons when symptoms begin and in about 9 out of 10 persons within 3 months after symptoms begin. However, it is important to note that many persons who have hepatitis C have no symptoms. Many feel well, and have no outwards symptoms or complaints.

6. How long after exposure to HCV does it take to test positive with PCR?

It is possible to find HCV within 1 to 2 weeks after being infected with the virus.

7. Who should get tested or hepatitis C? 

  • All Baby-Boomers need to be tested for hepatitis C. These are individuals born between 1945-1965. You need to get tested regardless of risk factors.

  • Persons who ever injected illegal drugs, including those who injected once or twice many years ago

  • Persons who were treated for clotting problems with a blood product made before 1992 when more advanced methods for manufacturing the products were developed

  • Persons who were notified that they received blood from a donor who later tested positive for hepatitis C

  • Persons who received a blood transfusion or solid organ transplant before July 1992 when better testing of blood donors became available

  • Long-term hemodialysis patients

  • Persons who have signs or symptoms of liver disease (e.g., abnormal liver enzyme tests)

  • Healthcare workers after exposures (e.g., needle sticks or splashes to the eye ) to HCV positive blood on the job

  • Children born to HCV-positive women

  • Homosexual men or women

  • New recommendations from the Centers for Disease control state that all "Baby Boomers" get tested, regardless of their HCV risk factors. Baby Boomers were born between 1945-1965. Baby Boomers, as a group, are five times more likely to have HCV. Many have no symptoms, so they need to ask to be tested for HCV-do not assume you will be tested by your physician.

  • This video by Dr. Galati outlines some of the Baby Boomer issues related to HCV.

8.Can you have a normal liver enzyme (e.g., ALT) level and still have chronic hepatitis C?

Yes. It is common for persons with chronic hepatitis C to have a liver enzyme level that goes up and down, with periodic returns to normal or near normal. Some persons have a liver enzyme level that is normal for over a year but they still have chronic liver disease. If the liver enzyme level is normal, persons should have their enzyme level re-checked several times over a 6 to 12 month period.

9. How could a person have been exposed to hepatitis C?

HCV is spread primarily by direct contact with human blood. For example, you may have gotten infected with HCV if:

  • You ever injected street drugs, that may have had someone else's blood that contained HCV on them. With the opioid crisis we are facing, we are now seeing increased rates of new hepatitis C infection.

  • You received blood, blood products, or solid organs from a donor whose blood contained HCV.

  • You were ever on long-term kidney dialysis as you may have unknowingly shared supplies/equipment that had someone else's blood on them.

  • You were ever a healthcare worker and had frequent contact with blood on the job, especially accidental needlesticks.

  • Your mother had hepatitis C at the time she gave birth to you. During the birth her blood may have gotten into your body.

  • You ever had sex with a person infected with HCV.

  • You lived with someone who was infected with HCV and shared items such as razors or toothbrushes that might have had his/her blood on them.

10. Can HCV be spread by sexual activity?

Yes, but this does not occur very often. Discuss these issues with Dr. Galati for further information and guidance. Hepatitis C is spread very poorly sexually.

11. Can HCV be spread by oral sex?

There is no evidence that HCV has been spread by oral sex. Keep in mind that other high risk behavior may put you at risk. Discuss these issues with Dr. Galati for further information.

12. Can HCV be spread within a household?

Yes, but this does not occur very often. If HCV is spread within a household, it is most likely due to direct exposure to the blood of an infected household member. Casual hosehold contact is not a risk factor for hepatitis C.

13. Since more advanced tests have been developed for use in blood banks, what is the chance now that a person can get HCV infection from transfused blood or blood products?

Less than 1 chance per million units transfused.

14. Should pregnant women be routinely tested for anti-HCV?

YES. All pregnant women need to be tested for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C. 

15. What is the risk that HCV infected women will spread HCV to their newborn infants?

About 5 out of every 100 infants born to HCV infected women become infected. This occurs at the time of birth, and there is no treatment that can prevent this from happening. Most infants infected with HCV at the time of birth have no symptoms and do well during childhood. More studies are needed to find out if these children will have problems from the infection as they grow older. There are no treatments or guidelines for the treatment of infants or children infected with HCV. Children with elevated ALT (liver enzyme) levels should be referred for evaluation to a specialist familiar with the management of children with HCV-related disease.

16. Should a woman with hepatitis C be advised against breast-feeding?

No. There is no evidence that breast-feeding spreads HCV. HCV-positive mothers should consider abstaining from breast-feeding if their nipples are cracked or bleeding.

17. When should babies born to mothers with hepatitis C be tested to see if they were infected at birth?

Children should not be tested for anti-HCV before 12-18 months of age as HCV antibodies from the mother may last until this age. If testing is desired prior to 12 months of age, PCR could be performed at or after an infant's first well-child visit at age 1-2 months.

18. How can persons infected with HCV prevent spreading HCV to others?

  • Do not donate blood, body organs, other tissue, or semen.

  • Do not share personal items that might have your blood on them, such as toothbrushes, dental appliances, nail-grooming equipment or razors.

  • Cover your cuts and skin sores to keep from spreading HCV.

19. How can a person protect themselves from getting hepatitis C and other diseases spread by contact with human blood?

  • Don't ever shoot drugs. Intranasal (inhalled) is also a risk factor. If you shoot or inhale drugs, stop and get into a treatment program. If you can't stop, never reuse or share syringes, water, or drug works, and get vaccinated against hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

  • Do not share toothbrushes, razors, or other personal care articles. They might have blood on them.

  • If you are a healthcare worker, always follow routine barrier precautions and safely handle needles and other sharps. Get vaccinated against hepatitis B

  • Consider the health risks if you are thinking about getting a tattoo or body piercing: You can get infected if:

    • the tools that are used have someone else's blood on them.

    • the artist or piercer doesn't follow good health practices, such as washing hands and using disposable gloves.

HCV can be spread by sex, but this does not occur very often. If you are having sex, but not with one steady partner:

  • You and your partners can get other diseases spread by having sex (e.g., AIDS, hepatitis B, gonorrhea or chlamydia).

  • You should use latex condoms correctly and every time. The efficacy of latex condoms in preventing infection with HCV is unknown, but their proper use may reduce transmission.

  • You should get vaccinated against hepatitis B.

19. Should patients with hepatitis C change their sexual practices if they have only one long-term steady sex partner?

No. There is a very low chance of spreading HCV to that partner through sexual activity. If you want to lower the small chance of spreading HCV to your sex partner, you may decide to use barrier precautions such as latex condoms. The efficacy of latex condoms in preventing infection with HCV is unknown, but their proper use may reduce transmission. Your partner should also be tested.

20. What can persons with HCV infection do to protect their liver?

  • Stop using alcohol.

  • Keep your weight in the normal weight. Fatty liver, related to obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrom increases your risk of liver damage and cirrhosis in hepatitis C.
  • See your doctor regularly.

  • Don't start any new medicines or use over-the-counter, herbal, and other medicines without a physician's knowledge.

  • Get vaccinated against hepatitis A and B

21. What other information should patients with hepatitis C be aware of?

  • Sneezing, hugging, coughing, food or water does not spread HCV nor does sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses, or casual contact.

  • Persons should not be excluded from work, school, play, child-care or other settings on the basis of their HCV infection status.

  • Involvement with a support group may help patients cope with hepatitis C.


22. What are the chances of persons with HCV infection developing long term infection, chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, liver cancer, or dying as a result of hepatitis C?

Of every 100 persons infected with HCV about:

  • 75 to 85 persons may develop long-term infection

  • 70 persons may develop chronic liver disease

  • 15 persons may develop cirrhosis over a period of 20 to 30 years

  • Less than 3% of persons may die from the consequences of long term infection (liver cancer or cirrhosis)

  • Hepatitis C is a leading indication for liver transplants.

23. Do medical conditions outside the liver occur in persons with chronic hepatitis C?

A small percentage of persons with chronic hepatitis C develop medical conditions outside the liver (this is called extrahepatic). These conditions are thought to occur due to the body's natural immune system fighting against itself. Such conditions include: glomerulonephritis associated with kidney disease, essential mixed cryoglobulinemia, and porphyria cutanea tarda-a skin condition.

24. What is the treatment for chronic hepatitis C?

Since 2013,there have been numerous new therapies for HCV approved by the FDA. More information can be learned about these new therapies by viewing the following videos produced by Liver Specialists of Texas and Dr. Galati. Curently, medical therapies will allow a better than 95% cure rate with 8-12 weeks of therapy. 

25. What does the term genotype mean?

Genotype refers to the genetic make-up of an organism or a virus. There are at least 6 distinct HCV genotypes identified. Genotype 1 is the most common genotype seen in the United States.

26. Is it necessary to do genotyping when managing a person with chronic hepatitis C?

Yes, as there are 6 known genotypes and more than 50 subtypes of HCV, and genotype information is helpful in defining the epidemiology of hepatitis C. Knowing the genotype or serotype (genotype-specific antibodies) of HCV is helpful in making recommendations and counseling regarding therapy. Based on your genotype, the length of treatment, as well as the combination of medication will be determined. The good new now, is that the current HCV therapies are "pan-genotypic", meaning they work equally well with all of the genotypes. This is great news.

27. What is the risk for HCV infection from a needle-stick exposure to HCV contaminated blood?

After needle stick or sharps exposure to HCV positive blood , about 2 healthcare workers out of 100 will get infected with HCV.

28. What are the recommendations for follow-up of healthcare workers after exposure to HCV positive blood?

Anti-viral agents (e.g., interferon) or immune globulin should not be used for postexposure prophylaxis.

  1. For the source, baseline testing for anti-HCV.

  2. For the person exposed to an HCV-positive source, baseline and follow-up testing including baseline testing for anti-HCV and ALT activity; and follow-up testing for anti-HCV (e.g., at 4-6 months) and ALT activity. (If earlier diagnosis of HCV infection is desired, testing for HCV RNA may be performed at 4-6 weeks.)

29. Should HCV-infected healthcare workers be restricted in their work?

No, there are no recommendations to restrict a healthcare worker who is infected with HCV. The risk of transmission from an infected healthcare worker to a patient appears to be very low. As recommended for all healthcare workers, those who are HCV positive should follow strict aseptic technique and standard precautions, including appropriate use of hand washing, protective barriers, and care in the use and disposal of needles and other sharp instruments.

Obesity and Fatty Liver Disease

Obesity, and all of its related complications, is more serious than most adults in America believe. More than one-third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. Obesity-related conditions include heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, and certain types of cancer, are some of the leading causes of preventable death. We are seeing an increase in the number of young children and adolescents developing obesity, and all of the related complications.

The cost of obesity is staggering, with annual medical cost of obesity exceeding $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars. The medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight.

Dr. Galati and the Liver Specialists of Texas team are dedicated to evaluate, treat, and manage all aspects of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and NASH), including the complication of cirrhosis and liver failure. Developing a customized plan of care for each patient they see is their objective.

Liver Transplant Resources

Dr. Galati has been involved in Liver Transplantation since 1989. As Medical Director for the Center for Liver Disease and Transplantation at Houston Methodist Hospital, Dr. Galati has cared for thousands of patients with advanced liver disease. In those with the most severe form of advanced liver disease and cirrhosis, liver transplantation is a life-saving surgery. For more information on liver transplantation, click here.

Indications for liver transplant include:

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